published Wednesday, August 24th, 2011

Is East Coast prepared for truly powerful quake?

Office workers gather on the sidewalk in downtown Washington, D.C., moments after a 5.9 magnitude tremor shook the nation's capitol Tuesday. The earthquake centered northwest of Richmond, Va., was felt as far north as Rhode Island, New York City and Savannah, Ga.
Office workers gather on the sidewalk in downtown Washington, D.C., moments after a 5.9 magnitude tremor shook the nation's capitol Tuesday. The earthquake centered northwest of Richmond, Va., was felt as far north as Rhode Island, New York City and Savannah, Ga.
Photo by Associated Press /Chattanooga Times Free Press.
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By BEN NUCKOLS

Associated Press

WASHINGTON — There was a crack in the Washington Monument, and capstones were broken at the National Cathedral. In the District of Columbia suburbs, some people stayed in shelters because of structural concerns at their apartment buildings.

A day after the East Coast’s strongest earthquake in 67 years, inspectors assessed the damage and found that most problems were minor. But the shaking raised questions about whether this part of the country, with its older architecture and inexperience with seismic activity, is prepared for a truly powerful quake.

The 5.8 magnitude quake felt from Georgia north to Canada prompted swift inspections of many structures Wednesday, including bridges and nuclear plants. An accurate damage estimate could take weeks, if not longer. And many people will not be covered by insurance.

In a small Virginia city near the epicenter, the entire downtown business district was closed. School was canceled for two weeks to give engineers time to check out cracks in several buildings.

At the 555-foot Washington Monument, crews found a 4-inch crack late Tuesday in the side of the monument’s pyramidium — the section at the top of the obelisk where it begins narrowing to a point. The damage was discovered during a visual inspection by helicopter. It cannot be seen from the ground.

The monument, by far the tallest structure in the nation’s capital, was to remain closed indefinitely. It has never been damaged by a natural disaster, including earthquakes in Virginia in 1897 and New York in 1944, said Bill Line, a National Park Service spokesman.

Tourists arrived at the monument Wednesday morning only to find out they couldn’t get near it. A temporary fence was erected in a wide circle about 120 feet from the flags that surround its base. Walkways were blocked by metal barriers manned by security guards.

“Is it really closed?” a man asked the clerk at the site’s bookstore.

“It’s really closed,” said the clerk, Erin Nolan. Advance tickets were available for purchase, but she cautioned against buying them because it’s not clear when the monument will open.

“This is pretty much all I’m going to be doing today,” Nolan said.

Tuesday’s quake was centered about 40 miles northwest of Richmond, 90 miles south of Washington and 3.7 miles underground. In the nearby town of Mineral, Va., Michael Leman knew his Main Street Plumbing & Electrical Supply business would need — at best — serious and expensive repairs.

At worst, it could be condemned. The fagade had become detached from the rest of the building, and daylight was visible through a 4- to 6-inch gap that opened between the front wall and ceiling.

“We’re definitely going to open back up,” Leman said. “I’ve got people’s jobs to look out for.”

Leman said he is insured, but some property owners might not be so lucky.

The Insurance Information Institute said earthquakes are not covered under standard U.S. homeowners or business insurance policies, although supplemental coverage is usually available.

The institute says coverage for other damage that may result from earthquakes, such as fire and water damage from burst gas or water pipes, is provided by standard homeowners and business insurance policies in most states. Cars and other vehicles with comprehensive insurance would also be protected.

The U.S. Geological Survey classified the quake as Alert Level Orange, the second-most serious category on its four-level scale. Earthquakes in that range lead to estimated losses between $100 million and $1 billion.

In Culpeper, Va., about 35 miles from the epicenter, walls had buckled at the old sanctuary at St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church, which was constructed in 1821 and drew worshippers including Confederate Gens. Robert E. Lee and J.E.B. Stuart. Heavy stone ornaments atop a pillar at the gate were shaken to the ground. A chimney from the old Culpeper Baptist Church built in 1894 also tumbled down.

At the Washington National Cathedral, spokesman Richard Weinberg said the building’s overall structure remains sound and damage was limited to “decorative elements.”

Massive stones atop three of the four spires on the building’s central tower broke off, crashing onto the roof. At least one of the spires is teetering badly, and cracks have appeared in some flying buttresses.

Repairs were expected to cost millions of dollars — an expense not covered by insurance.

“Every single portion of the exterior is carved by hand, so everything broken off is a piece of art,” Weinberg said. “It’s not just the labor, but the artistry of replicating what was once there.”

The building will remain closed as a precaution, forcing officials to seek a new site for services to dedicate the memorial honoring Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.

Other major cities along the East Coast that felt the shaking tried to gauge the risk from another quake.

A few hours after briefly evacuating New York City Hall, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said the city’s newer buildings could withstand a more serious earthquake. But, he added, questions remain about the older buildings that are common in a metropolis founded hundreds of years ago.

“We think that the design standards of today are sufficient against any eventuality,” he said. But “there are questions always about some very old buildings. ... Fortunately those tend to be low buildings, so there’s not great danger.”

An earthquake similar to the one in Virginia could do billions of dollars of damage if it were centered in New York, said Barbara Nadel, an architect who specializes in securing buildings against natural disasters and terrorism.

The city’s 49-page seismic code requires builders to prepare for significant shifting of the earth. High-rises must be built with certain kinds of bracing, and they must be able to safely sway at least somewhat to accommodate for wind and even shaking from the ground, Nadel said.

Buildings constructed in Boston in recent decades had to follow stringent codes comparable to anything in California, said Vernon Woodworth, an architect and faculty member at the Boston Architectural College. New construction on older structures also must meet tough standards to withstand severe tremors, he said.

It’s a different story with the city’s older buildings. The 18th- and 19th-century structures in Boston’s Back Bay, for instance, were often built on fill, which can liquefy in a strong quake, Woodworth said. Still, there just aren’t many strong quakes in New England.

The last time the Boston area saw a quake as powerful as the one that hit Virginia on Tuesday was in 1755, off Cape Ann, to the north. A repeat of that quake would likely cause deaths, Woodworth said. Still, the quakes are so infrequent that it’s difficult to weigh the risks versus the costs of enacting tougher building standards regionally, he said.

People in several of the affected states won’t have much time to reflect before confronting another potential emergency. Hurricane Irene is approaching the East Coast and could skirt the Mid-Atlantic region by the weekend and make landfall in New England after that.

In North Carolina, officials were inspecting an aging bridge that is a vital evacuation route for people escaping the coastal barrier islands as the storm approaches.

Speaking at an earthquake briefing Wednesday, Washington Mayor Vincent Gray inadvertently mixed up his disasters.

“Everyone knows, obviously, that we had a hurricane,” he said before realizing his mistake.

“Hurricane,” he repeated sheepishly as reporters and staffers burst into laughter. “I’m getting ahead of myself!”

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Associated Press writers Sam Hananel in Washington; Alex Dominguez in Baltimore; Bob Lewis in Mineral, Va.; Samantha Gross in New York City; and Jay Lindsay in Boston contributed to this report.

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Follow Ben Nuckols on Twitter at —http://twitter.com/APBenNuckols.

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GreenKepi said...

(Just heard the one that's making the 'rounds')...it wasn't a quake...it was our 'Founding Fathers' turning over in their graves because of this fiasco ongoing in Washington, DC....

August 24, 2011 at 8:18 p.m.
esaletnik said...

Don't worry, President Perry says plate tectonics is just a theory and has not yet been proven.

August 24, 2011 at 10:24 p.m.
smadave said...

Living in NJ for 40 years I can tell you 99.9% of the people on the east coast never experienced an earthquake before and they certainly are not ready for one.

August 25, 2011 at 6:02 a.m.
dao1980 said...

Is anyone on this planet truly "prepared" for a powerful earthquake?

Sure, we can all feel prepared for anything... and there will usually be countless gimmick vendors, eager to sell us that warm fuzzy feeling of preparedness.

The timing and intensity of an earthquake just isn't one of those "ready, set, go!" type of events.

August 25, 2011 at 7:41 a.m.
riverstronghold said...

We can all evaluate and decide our level of preparedness based on information from the American Red Cross, FEMA, TEMA, GEMA, etc., and almost all of us can and should be better prepared for emergencies and disasters. Rugged individuals and strong families look out for themselves and their communities.

Power outages, interruptions of other utilities and communications, natural and man-made disasters and acts of terror are events we can have our families and communities better prepared for -- or not.

Simple and inexpensive practices can make our loved ones safer and our workplaces more able to more quickly resume business and generate paychecks and productivity.

It is merely responsible to take effort to be better prepared, and to take responsibility for our choices in the levels of preparedness we provide our family, community, and nation.

August 25, 2011 at 8:38 a.m.
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