Require Human Impact Test -§ 51.20 Criteria for and identification of licensing and regulatory actions requiring environmental impact statements(a)Licensing and regulatory actions requiring an environmental impact statement shall meet at least one of the following criteria:(1) The proposed action is a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.(2) The proposed action involves a matter which the Commission, in the exercise of its discretion, has determined should be covered by an environmental impact statement.(b) The following types of actions require an environmental impact statement or a supplement to an environmental impact statement:(1)Issuance of a limited work authorization or a permit to construct a nuclear power reactor, testing facility, or fuel reprocessing plant under part 50 of this chapter, or issuance of an early site permit under part 52 of this chapter.(2) Issuance or renewal of a full power or design capacity license to operate a nuclear power reactor, testing facility, or fuel reprocessing plant under part 50 of this chapter, or a combined license under part 52 of this chapter.
(3) Issuance of a permit to construct or a design capacity license to operate or renewal of a design capacity license to operate an isotopic enrichment plant pursuant to part 50 of this chapter.
(4) Conversion of a provisional operating license for a nuclear power reactor, testing facility or fuel reprocessing plant to a full term or design capacity license pursuant to part 50 of this chapter if a final environmental impact statement covering full term or design capacity operation has not been previously prepared.
(7) Issuance of a license to possess and use special nuclear material for processing and fuel fabrication, scrap recovery, or conversion of uranium hexafluoride pursuant to part 70 of this chapter.((10) Issuance of a license for a uranium enrichment facility.(11) Issuance of renewal of a license authorizing receipt and disposal of radioactive waste from other persons pursuant to part 61 of this chapter.(12) Issuance of a license amendment pursuant to part 61 of this chapter authorizing (i) closure of a land disposal site, (ii) transfer of the license to the disposal site owner for the purpose of institutional control, or (iii) termination of the license at the end of the institutional control period.(13) Issuance of a construction authorization and license pursuant to part 60 or part 63 of this chapter.(14) Any other action which the Commission determines is a major Commission action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. As provided in § 51.22(b), the Commission may, in special circumstances, prepare an environmental impact statement on an action covered by a categorical exclusion.
The American Cancer society states “Ionizing radiation” is a proven human carcinogen (cancer causing agent). The evidence for this comes from many different sources, including studies of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, people exposed during the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people treated with high doses of radiation for cancer and other conditions, and people exposed to radiation at work, such as uranium miners and nuclear plant workers. “They go on to say, “people living near or downwind of nuclear facilities may also be exposed to radioactive byproducts. Levels of radiation are likely to be higher near these sites, but some radioactive particles enter the atmosphere and travel great distances, landing thousands of miles away from the facility.”
According to the American Cancer Society Ionizing radiation increases the risk of certain types of cancer more than others. The thyroid gland and bone marrow are particularly sensitive to radiation. Leukemia, a type of cancer that arises in the bone marrow, is the most common radiation-induced cancer. Leukemia may appear as early as a few years after radiation exposure. Other types of cancer can also result from radiation exposure, although they may take longer to develop (usually at least 10 to 15 years). Some of the other cancers most strongly linked to radiation exposure in studies include: Lung cancer, Skin cancer, Thyroid cancer, Multiple myeloma, Breast cancer, Stomach cancer, Childhood Leukemia.
A study commissioned by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection titled “Epidemiological Study of Childhood Cancer in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants” proves that young children develop cancer more frequently when they live near nuclear power plants. The report states that indications of childhood cancer near nuclear power plants have been found for over twenty years, but have not been taken seriously. The correlation has been unequivocally confirmed by the Kikk study. Another study produced 1998 by Dr. Korblein and Professor Hoffman showed there was a significant increase in the rate of childhood cancer within a 5km radius of the nuclear plant. The Kikk results showed not only a 60% increase in the cancer rate and a 117% increase in leukemia in infants within a 5km radius, but also a significant increase in the risk of cancer and leukemia the closer one lived to the nuclear plant.
If emissions have been correctly measured by monitoring the area surrounding nuclear installations, as has been claimed by the operators and the NRC, then either the currently accepted calculation models for determine radiation exposure of local residents are incorrect, or the biological effects of incorporated radionuclides have been badly underestimated, at least for young people or embryos. The results compel us to critically review not only the measurement of emissions by the operators but also the rules for calculating dose measurement and the risk models which they are based.
A local history of radioactive leaks into the groundwater and Tennessee River - in lieu of adding more maybe you could tell us what you are doing to keep this from happening? There are now hundreds of thousands of gallons a year of radiaoactive wastewater flowing into the rivers of America - Tritum is a Beta which means its also airborne - Your thoughts?
20100407 Browns Ferry Unit 3 Approximately 1,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated water leaked from Condensate Storage Tank No. 5 as workers were
transferring water between condensate storage tanks. A worker
conducting routine rounds observed water leaking from an open test
valve near the top of CST No. 5.
20080105 Browns Ferry Unit 3 The condensate storage tank overflowed due to failed tank level instrumentation. The spilled water flowed into the sump in the
condensate piping tunnel, triggering a high level alarm that prompted
workers to initiate the search that discovered the overflow condition.
Some of the spilled water may have permeated through the pipe tunnel
into the ground.
20060700 Sequoyah Unit 1 An investigation to identify sources of tritium in groundwater found detectable levels of tritium in the Unit 1 and Unit 2 refueling water
storage tank moat water.
20060700 Sequoyah Unit 2 An investigation to identify sources of tritium in groundwater found detectable levels of tritium in the storage tank moat water.
20060200 Browns Ferry Unit 3 A soil sample taken from underneath the radwaste ball joint vault(located outside the radwaste doors) indicated trace levels of cobalt-60
20060200 Browns Ferry Unit 1 A soil sample taken from underneath the radwaste ball joint vault(located outside the radwaste doors) indicated trace levels of cobalt-60
20060200 Browns Ferry Unit 2 A soil sample taken from underneath the radwaste ball joint vault(located outside the radwaste doors) indicated trace levels of cobalt-60
Tritium’s Health Effects
•Can be ingested in food and water, inhaled, or absorbed
through the skin
•Has a half–life of 12.5 days, making it dangerous for 120-
•Is taken up by plants and animals in the environment and
increases in concentration as it goes from one organism to
•Causes tumors and cancer in the lungs and digestive tract
•Shrinks the testicles and ovaries even at quite low doses and causes birth defects, mental
retardation, decreased brain weight, loss of reproductive abilities of offspring, and
stunted, deformed fetuses
•After entering the body, is found in body fluids, organs and tissues, and is uniformly distributed
through all biological fluids within one to two hours9