How to identify four jumps in singles routines:
Axel: Created by Norwegian Axel Paulsen, 1882.
Approach Glide backward on right outside edge; turn.
Takeoff: Left forward edge.
Salchow: Created by Swede Ulrich Salchow, 1889.
Approach: Right arm, right leg draw back then swing forward to start spin.
Lutz: Created by Austrian Alois Lutz, 1913.
Approach: Long backward glide on left foot.
Takeoff: Left backward outside edge, right toe pick, left leg turns skater.
Edge: Inside, outside of skate blade allows skater to perform circles, curves.
Loop: Single toe loop created by American Bruce Mapes in the 1920s.
Approach: Forward, left leg slightly crossed in front of right; or backward, left foot dragging close to ice, right knee bent.
Takeoff: Left backward outside edge.
Rotation: Midair turn; can be single, double, triple, quadruple.